Length: 14 cm.
The female resembles the male but is not as brightly coloured.
Voice: A ringing ‘tic’ or ‘tsip’.
Song: Loud and melodious.
The male sings perched in a tree.
Size of Egg: 16.9—22.2 x 13.8—16.3 mm.
Deciduous, mixed and coniferous woods with thick undergrowth from lowland to mountain elevations are the home of the robin in practically the whole of Europe, except Iceland and northern Scandinavia. Its range extends eastward as far as western Siberia and it is also found in northwest Africa. In western and central Europe it is plentiful in parks and cemeteries, preferring thickly over- grown, dimly lighted spots, which accounts for its conspicuously large eyes. Northern and eastern populations migrate in September and October and winter in western and parts of southern Europe and North Africa. They often fly to England in the autumn, facilitating their journey by ‘catching a ride’ on ships crossing the channel.
In recent years central Europe has had its share of adult males staying the winter, feeding on various berries. March marks the return of the birds to their breeding grounds, where in April the females begin building their nests of roots, plant stalks and moss. These are well concealed between stones, under protruding roots, in piles of underbrush, less frequently in a hollow stump, and are lined with thin roots, fine plant parts and sometimes with animal hairs.
The 3 to 6 eggs are incubated only by the hen for a period of 13 to 14 days, but the male assists her in feeding the
young with insects, larvae and spiders. The young leave the nest at the age of 12 to 15 days, though as yet incapable of flight, and conceal themselves on the ground where the parents bring them food.